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C++编程思想第二版第二卷

First Edition Winner 1996 Jolt Award for Best Book of the Year.
Learn practical programming and best practices.
Meet the difficult challenges of C++ development.
Build reliable and robust programs.
Design Patterns chapter shows sophisticated use of objects, composition and polymorphism.
Provides a gentle introduction to multithreaded programming, a feature being considered for the next version of Standard C++.
Defensive Programming chapter includes a simple unit-testing framework and debugging techniques.
In-depth treatment of Standard C++ Library facilities including strings, iostreams, and the "STL" algorithms and containers.
Modern usage of templates, including template metaprogramming.
Unravels the perplexities of multiple inheritance.
Shows practical uses for RTTI.
Explores exception handling in depth and clearly explains exception-safe design.
Compliant with the official ISO C++ Standard.
Presents results of current research being considered for inclusion in the next revision of Standard C++.
All code examples freely downloadable, tested on multiple platforms and compilers including the free GNU C++ compiler on Windows/Mac/Linux.

目录


Preface
13
What’s new in the second edition13
What’s in Volume 2 of this book ……14
How to get Volume 2 ……………………14
Prerequisites…………………………. 14
Learning C++……………………….. 14
Goals …………………………………… 16
Chapters ………………………………. 17
Exercises ……………………………… 18
Exercise solutions ………………………..18
Source code………………………….. 18
Language standards……………….. 20
Language support…………………………20
The book’s CD ROM …………….. 20
Seminars, CD Roms & consulting20
Errors ………………………………….. 21
Acknowledgements……………….. 21
Part 1: The Standard C++ Library
23
Library overview…………………… 24
1: Strings
27
What’s in a string ………………….. 27
Creating and initializing C++ strings 29
Operating on strings………………. 31
Appending, inserting and concatenating strings
32
Replacing string characters ……………34
Concatenation using non-member overloaded operators
Searching in strings……………….. 38
Finding in reverse…………………………43
Finding first/last of a set………………..44
Removing characters from strings…..45
Comparing strings ………………………..49
Using iterators……………………………..53
37
Strings and character traits …………….55
A string application……………….. 58
Summary……………………………… 61
Exercises ……………………………… 62
2: Iostreams
63
Why iostreams?…………………….. 63
True wrapping……………………………..65
Iostreams to the rescue…………… 67
Sneak preview of operator overloading68
Inserters and extractors …………………69
Common usage…………………………….70
Line-oriented input……………………….72
File iostreams……………………….. 74
Open modes ………………………………..76
Iostream buffering…………………. 76
Using get( ) with a streambuf…………78
Seeking in iostreams ……………… 78
Creating read/write files ………………..80
stringstreams ………………………… 81
strstreams …………………………….. 81
User-allocated storage…………………..81
Automatic storage allocation………….84
Output stream formatting ……….. 87
Internal formatting data…………………88
An exhaustive example …………………92
Formatting manipulators………… 95
Manipulators with arguments…………96
Creating manipulators……………. 99
Effectors……………………………………100
Iostream examples ………………. 102
Code generation …………………………102
A simple datalogger ……………………110
Counting editor ………………………….117
Breaking up big files …………………..118
Summary……………………………. 120
Exercises ……………………………. 120
3: Templates in depth
121
Nontype template arguments … 121
Default template arguments ….. 122
The typename keyword………… 122
Typedefing a typename ……………….124
Using typename instead of class ….124
Function templates ………………. 124
A string conversion system ………….125
A memory allocation system………..126
Type induction in function templates
129
Taking the address of a generated function template
Chapter 2: Hiding the Implementation
130
7
Local classes in templates …….. 131
Applying a function to an STL sequence
Template-templates ……………… 134
Member function templates ….. 135
131
Why virtual member template functions are disallowed
Nested template classes……………….137
137
Template specializations ………. 137
Full specialization ………………………137
Partial Specialization…………………..137
A practical example ……………………137
Design & efficiency ……………………141
Preventing template bloat…………….141
Explicit instantiation ……………. 143
Explicit specification of template functions
144
Controlling template instantiation144
The inclusion vs. separation models145
The export keyword ……………………145
Template programming idioms 145
The “curiously-recurring template”.145
Traits………………………………………..145
Summary……………………………. 145
4: STL Containers & Iterators147
Containers and iterators ……….. 147
STL reference documentation ………149
The Standard Template Library 149
The basic concepts ………………. 151
Containers of strings ……………. 155
Inheriting from STL containers 157
A plethora of iterators ………….. 159
Iterators in reversible containers …..161
Iterator categories……………………….162
Predefined iterators …………………….163
Basic sequences: vector, list & deque
169
Basic sequence operations……………169
vector ………………………………… 172
Cost of overflowing allocated storage173
Inserting and erasing elements ……..177
deque…………………………………. 179
Converting between sequences …….181
Cost of overflowing allocated storage182
Checked random-access ………………184
list …………………………………….. 185
Special list operations …………………187
Swapping all basic sequences……….191
Robustness of lists………………………192
Performance comparison ……… 193
set……………………………………… 198
Eliminating strtok( ) …………………..199
StreamTokenizer: a more flexible solution
Chapter 2: Hiding the Implementation
201
8
A completely reusable tokenizer …..203
stack ………………………………….. 208
queue…………………………………. 211
Priority queues ……………………. 216
Holding bits………………………… 226
bitset ………………………………….226
vector…………………………….230
Associative containers …………. 232
Generators and fillers for associative containers
The magic of maps……………………..239
Multimaps and duplicate keys ………244
Multisets …………………………………..247
236
Combining STL containers …… 250
Cleaning up containers of pointers253
Creating your own containers .. 255
Freely-available STL extensions257
Summary……………………………. 259
Exercises ……………………………. 260
5: STL Algorithms
263
Function objects………………….. 263
Classification of function objects ….264
Automatic creation of function objects265
SGI extensions …………………………..279
A catalog of STL algorithms…. 285
Support tools for example creation..287
Filling & generating ……………………291
Counting …………………………………..293
Manipulating sequences ………………294
Searching & replacing…………………299
Comparing ranges ………………………305
Removing elements…………………….308
Sorting and operations on sorted ranges311
Heap operations …………………………322
Applying an operation to each element in a range 323
Numeric algorithms…………………….331
General utilities………………………….334
Creating your own STL-style algorithms
Summary……………………………. 337
Exercises ……………………………. 337
Part 2: Advanced Topics 341
6: Multiple inheritance
336
342
Perspective …………………………. 342
Duplicate subobjects ……………. 344
Ambiguous upcasting…………… 345
virtual base classes……………… 346
Chapter 2: Hiding the Implementation
9
The “most derived” class and virtual base initialization
“Tying off” virtual bases with a default constructor 349
348
Overhead……………………………. 351
Upcasting …………………………… 352
Persistence ………………………………..355
Avoiding MI……………………….. 362
Repairing an interface ………….. 362
Summary……………………………. 367
Exercises ……………………………. 368
7: Exception handling
369
Error handling in C ……………… 369
Throwing an exception ………… 372
Catching an exception………….. 373
The try block …………………………….373
Exception handlers……………………..373
The exception specification………….374
Better exception specifications?……377
Catching any exception ……………….377
Rethrowing an exception……………..378
Uncaught exceptions …………………..378
Function-level try blocks……………..380
Cleaning up ………………………… 380
Constructors ……………………….. 384
Making everything an object………..386
Exception matching …………….. 388
Standard exceptions …………….. 390
Programming with exceptions . 391
When to avoid exceptions ……………391
Typical uses of exceptions …………..392
Overhead……………………………. 396
Summary……………………………. 397
Exercises ……………………………. 397
8: Run-time type identification399
The “Shape” example ………….. 399
What is RTTI?…………………….. 400
Two syntaxes for RTTI ……………….400
Syntax specifics ………………….. 404
typeid( ) with built-in types …………404
Producing the proper type name……405
Nonpolymorphic types ………………..405
Casting to intermediate levels ………406
void pointers ……………………………..408
Using RTTI with templates ………….408
References………………………….. 409
Exceptions…………………………………410
Multiple inheritance …………….. 411
Chapter 2: Hiding the Implementation
10
Sensible uses for RTTI…………. 412
Revisiting the trash recycler …………413
Mechanism & overhead of RTTI416
Creating your own RTTI………. 416
Explicit cast syntax ……………… 420
Summary……………………………. 421
Exercises ……………………………. 422
9: Building stable systems 423
Shared objects & reference counting
423
Reference-counted class hierarchies423
The canonical object & singly-rooted hierarchies
423
An extended canonical form…………424
Design by contract ………………. 424
Integrated unit testing ………….. 424
Dynamic aggregation …………… 424
Exercises ……………………………. 428
10: Design patterns
429
The pattern concept……………… 429
The singleton……………………………..430
Classifying patterns……………… 434
Features, idioms, patterns…………….435
Basic complexity hiding………………435
Factories: encapsulating object creation
436
Polymorphic factories …………………438
Abstract factories ……………………….441
Virtual constructors…………………….444
Callbacks……………………………. 449
Functor/Command ……………………..450
Strategy …………………………………….450
Observer……………………………………450
Multiple dispatching ……………. 459
Visitor, a type of multiple dispatching463
Efficiency…………………………… 466
Flyweight ………………………………….466
The composite…………………….. 466
Evolving a design: the trash recycler
Improving the design …………… 471
466
“Make more objects”…………………..471
A pattern for prototyping creation…476
Abstracting usage………………… 488
Applying double dispatching … 492
Implementing the double dispatch…492
Applying the visitor pattern ….. 497
RTTI considered harmful? ……. 503
Summary……………………………. 506
Chapter 2: Hiding the Implementation
11
Exercises ……………………………. 507
11: Tools & topics
509
The code extractor ………………. 509
Debugging………………………….. 531
assert( )…………………………………….531
Trace macros……………………………..531
Trace file …………………………………..532
Abstract base class for debugging …533
Tracking new/delete & malloc/free533
CGI programming in C++…….. 539
Encoding data for CGI ………………..540
The CGI parser…………………………..541
Using POST ………………………………548
Handling mailing lists …………………549
A general information-extraction CGI program
Parsing the data files …………………..566
560
Summary……………………………. 573
Exercises ……………………………. 573
A: Recommended reading 575
C……………………………………….. 575
General C++……………………….. 575
My own list of books…………………..576
Depth & dark corners…………… 576
The STL …………………………….. 576
Design Patterns …………………… 576
B:Compiler specifics 577
Index 580

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C++编程思想第二版第二卷